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Showing posts with label Construction Safety. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Construction Safety. Show all posts

Construction Safety : Excavation Safety

Topic : Construction Safety
Excavation Safety

Excavation Safety
Excavation is the act or process of digging, especially when something specific is being removed from the ground or for construction of structures. Archaeologists use excavation to find artifacts and fossils.

There are many types of excavation, but they all involve digging holes in the earth. Mining for coal, gold, or diamonds all require excavation, and before buildings and houses can be built, there is often some excavation that's done before a foundation can be poured. 

Roles and Responsibility

Project Head: Provision of adequate resources for the development, implementation and maintenance of the Safety Standard.
Line managers: Provision of support for & compliance with Safety Standard dictates.
Line Supervisors: Provision of support for & enforcement of Safety Standard dictates.

Work Site excavation process:

  • No excavation works can commence unless the appropriate authorization & permits have been issued.
  • In all instances a thorough risk assessment of all intended excavation activities must be conducted by the senior site engineer under the guidance of a suitably trained/qualified site safety officer prior to work commencing.
  • All excavation risk assessments must be approved & signed off by an Safety or Concerned department.
  • No excavation permits will be issued without an approved risk assessment attached.
  • The Senior Site Engineer shall inspect the excavation integrity regularly (at least once every 4 hours) & arrange back-fill to maximize safety as required.
  • All open excavations shall be effectively hard barricaded at all times.
  • Where personnel &/or equipment access or egress is required, closable access points will be installed in the barricading.
  • All excavation works where pedestrian personnel are required to work inside the excavation itself must have at least two (2) suitably constructed means of easily accessible entry & egress.
  • No person is permitted to work in any excavation containing liquids of a depth greater than 0.5m. So effective de-watering methods must be maintained at all times as required to service this rule.

Strict compliance with the following  basic excavation safety rules is mandatory

Wherever/whenever possible excavation walls must be cut at no greater an angle than 60 degrees to the horizontal to minimize the risk of slippages and/or collapses. If, for whatever reason it is impossible to cut walls at 60 degrees and walls are at or close to the vertical (especially in unstable soil /material structures) then;     
  • Stepping/benching method must be employed.
  • If this is not possible then;      
  • Appropriate shoring will be utilized.
  • If this is not possible then;  
  • Appropriate meshing & or revetments methodologies must be used.
Authorization to Work & Permit Requirements
  • Any task involves excavation or penetration greater than 300 mm.
  • Wherever there will be any disturbance to the ground.
  • When cutting into any vertical wall, floors or ceiling or any concrete slab.

All Excavation permits and any other relevant permits e.g. Electrical Isolation &/or Hot Work shall be issued prior to any work commencing:

The area/site/contract Excavation officer will be the issuing authority for all excavation permits. An excavation permit will not be issued without reference to the following information:
  • Mark the location of Pipes and/or Services and excavation boundaries on proposed excavation surface with paint, safety tape or similar marker.
  • The site Safety Officer & the senior site engineer will inspect the area and ensure information supplied is sufficient and correct for the job to commence.
  • Isolate all services as necessary.  
  • Only upon receipt of all relevant permits can excavation work be allowed to commence. 
Possible Hazards in excavation

  • ollapses while connecting joists or trusses
  • Workers struck by objects during miscellaneous activities
  • Workers struck by objects and then falling
  • Improper use or failure of fall protection
  • Unsecured or unstable decking
  • Other falls during decking activities
  • Plumbing, bolting, welding and
  • Walking/standing on the beam/joist (i.e., moving point-to-point

Safety Precautions

Prevent workers and / or pedestrians from accidentally impaling themselves, the protruding ends of steel rebar are often bent over or covered with special steel-reinforced plastic "plate" caps. "Mushroom" caps may provide protection from scratches and other minor injuries, but provide little to no protection from impalement.

Safety and Environment Requirements

Mandatory PPE

  • Safety helmet.
  • Long sleeved Shirt, long trousers.
  • Safety goggles.
  • Safety Shoes.
  • Ear plugs (when operating or working near heavy earth moving equipment).

Hazardous Considerations

  • Flooding.
  • Confined Space or Restricted Space Entry permit must be obtained if personnel are to enter an excavation of 4m depth or greater.
  • Trenching or excavation over1500mm, a minimum of two persons at the work site at any one time.
  • Mobile equipment hazards, i.e. backhoes & excavators etc.

Environmental Considerations

Rupture of gas, oil, water and/or sewage lines – containment and disposal routines must be covered.


Proposed work and access areas to be kept free from tools, rubbish, etc at all stages of this task.

Tools and Equipment

  • Hand tools as required.
  • Excavation tools as required, i.e. shovels, etc.
  • Barriers, signs & ladders, etc.
  • Mobile earth moving equipment operated by competent persons.

Check Points
This checklist provides builders and building trades contractors with a framework of safety precautions to consider in formwork and concreting operations.

Before Starting the job ask yourself these questions:
  1. Has the formwork system been properly designed?
  2. Has the formwork been properly constructed?
  3. Is the formwork deck being laid safely?
  4. Is steel fixing being done safely?
  5. Is the formwork structurally adequate?
  6. Are wall and column shutters safely lifted and properly secured?
  7. Are workers prevented from accessing the area underneath the concrete pour?
  8. Are concrete pumps being used safely?
  9. Are kibbles being used safely?
  10. Are concrete vibrators being used safely?
  11. Are the concreters working safely?
  12. Is formwork being dismantled safely?



Topic : Construction Safety 



1. Context:

The digging and excavation of trenches is considered to be a hazardous task due to the potential for unplanned contact with utilities/services and the potential for injury from the collapse /localized failure of trench walls. It is therefore critical to establish suitable risk controls to avoid fatal injuries resulting from material instability and inadvertent contact with underground services/utilities.

2. Purpose:

To detail the functions necessary to manage the design, planning and work method for the excavation of openings or trenches such that adequate safeguards are implemented to prevent contact with utilities and exposure to loose material.

3. Scope:

This element applies to the management of any task requiring the penetration of the ground to a depth deeper than 300 mm. Therefore the scope is wider than simply the digging of trenches. This element excludes bulk excavation work being performed in quarries, stockpiles and spoil piles.

4. Element Requirements

4.1 Hazard Identification Risk Assessment and Control

A procedure must be established for the issuing of an excavation permit. The procedure will ensure all digging and excavation work performed outside a quarry must be conducted under the authority of an excavation permit. The excavation permit must address the following key issues:

Type of  work being preformed:-
  1. Identification of underground utilities and services including the requirement for verification by the appropriate person that the area has been checked for underground services/utilities.
  2. Soil type (ground conditions)– hard rock, clay, soil or sand
General safety requirements:-
  1. Barricading & signage
  2. Segregation distances or barriers between personnel and mobile equipment and/or a loose digging face
  3. Personal protective equipment
  4. Locating of diesel/ petrol driven equipment
  5. Name and Signature of authorizing permit issuer, including the date, time of issue of the permit.
  6. Note: In situations where an excavation/trench is being dug to a depth >1 meter and wider > 0.5 meters or where the trench is being excavated for the purposes of conducting work on (installation repair) underground utilities/services a risk assessment must be performed before the excavation permit can be issued. 
  7. Requirements of other FPEs must also be considered, e.g. confined spaces.
Risk assessments performed on digging and excavation work must consider the following and where identified assess the potential for injury or damage and define the risk controls:
  1. Potential collapse of excavations or shoring
  2. Potential collapses of spoil heaps, adjacent structures or roads
  3. Potential for flooding from storm water, broken mains or ground water ingress
  4. Potential ventilation hazards from exhaust fumes from operating equipment
  5. Potential entrapments in confined spaces ( coffer dams, drains etc)
  6. Potential for inadvertent contact or damage to live services and underground tanks or structures
  7. Potential for workers being injured by falling objects, being struck by machinery or falling into the trench
  8. Potential for persons to fall into the excavation
  9. Emergency response requirements to recover personnel
The risk assessment shall be attached to the excavation permit prior to being submitted for approval by the authorized permit issuer

Changes to the method of excavation or design of the excavation/trench including the angle of repose to slopes/protective support systems must be submitted to the excavation permit issuer before the change can be implemented (refer management)

4.2 Selection, Training, Competency and Authorisation

The training and competency assessment system shall ensure competency standards are established and applied for personnel designated as excavation permit issuers. These competencies must incorporate the following functions:
  1. Identification and characteristics of soil types and ground conditions
  2. Identification of confined spaces
  3. Common hazard during excavation (atmosphere, water inrush, collapse, Cobile equipment etc)
  4. Protection methods
  5. Simple slope excavation
  6. Protective support systems (shoring, shielding, benching)
  7. Identification of underground utilities/ services
  8. Safety precautions when working or accessing underground utilities / services
Personnel designated as authorized permit issuers must receive refresher training at period not exceeding 3 years.

All personnel conducting risk assessments in relation to digging and excavation work must:
Excavation Safety
  • Have completed excavation permit issuer training
  • Have completed formal risk assessment training
Personnel responsible for the installation of protective support systems must be trained in the safe erection, maintenance and dismantling of the system being used.
An overview of the excavation permit requirements must be provided as part of the general induction program.

4.3 Communication and Awareness

Excavations/ trenches need to be identified by having a barrier erected around the perimeter of the area of excavation at a minimum distance of 2 meters from the edge of the opening.

Awareness information and/or instruction must be provided on a regular basis to personnel who may perform digging and excavation.  The following topics should be addressed:
  • Definition of  digging and excavation
  • Hazards presented by excavations/trenches/ holes, openings
  • Range of underground services installed at the operation
  • Permitting requirements
  • Means for inspecting protective support systems and access points
4.4 Design, Purchase, Fabrication, Installation and Commissioning

The design of excavations/ trenches must consider the soil type and the duration the excavation/ trench will be left open. The application of  either slope excavation or protective support systems must address the following:
  1. Slope excavation
  2. Maximum slope angles for the various soil  types
  3. Bench heights for the various soil types
  4. Protective support systems
  5. Trench shields are suitably designed for the expected compression load
  6. Screw jacks, wales, clingers, braces and sheeting (separate and continuous) are suitably spaced for the intended load
  7. Accumulated spoil from the excavation must not located closer than 2 meters from the edge of the excavation/trench
  8. Designated access and egress points are provided for personnel
  9. Segregation requirements are established where mobile equipment may operate or a loose digging face is present
In situations where water accumulation is expected the following aspects must be considered within the design of the excavation/trench:
  • Requirements to prevent water accumulation from surface and ground water
  • Dewatering pumps used are capable of dealing with, as a minimum,  25% above the expected accumulation rate
  • Designated sump or drainage facility is provided for dewatering
4.5 Work Method and Condition Control

Digging and excavation is only permitted after written authorization is issued in the form of an excavation permit. The person supervising the task must ensure the following aspects are understood and applied by personnel involved in the task:
  • Check the excavation/trench for tension cracks, surface water before permitting access to the area
  • Erect barricading in the form of fencing/ barrier tape and signage around the perimeter of any open excavation/trench at a minimum distance of 2 meters from the edge of the opening.
  • Personnel must use the designated access and egress points to an excavation or trench
  • Personnel must not approach a loose digging face or mobile equipment excavating a trench
  • Work involving repair to underground services/utilities, must have those services isolated and locked out before digging/excavation can commence (refer fatality prevention element for isolation and lockout)
  • Diesel/ petrol driven equipment cannot be operated within a trench with personnel working. Atmospheric testing being performed prior to entry - (refer fatality prevention element confined space)
 4.6 Maintenance
 No requirement applies to this element

 4.7 Emergency Controls

Where digging and excavation requires personnel to access the excavation/trench a specific rescue plan must be in place and suitable rescue equipment must be available before entry into the excavation/ trench is permitted.
4.8 Monitoring, Inspections and Audits

An inspection of excavations/ trenches must be performed weekly or when any of the following situations arise:
  1. Tension cracks, sloughing, undercutting, water seepage, bulging at the bottom, or other similar conditions occur
  2. After inclement weather (rainstorm)
  3. Change in the size, location, or placement of the spoil pile
  4. Any indication of change or movement in adjacent structures
  5. The inspection will be performed using a formal checklist and the findings recorded.  Inspection checklist shall be retained for a period of 6 months.
Annual audits must be performed to verify the quality and effectiveness of the requirements set out in this element. As a minimum this will include :
  • Schedules for audits
  • Audit verification of:
  • Quality of the risk assessments performed
  • Quality of the inspection program for digging and excavations
  • Compliance to training, competency, and awareness requirements
  • Compliance to excavation permitting requirements
  • Feedback and reporting requirements
Task/job observations must be performed for the purpose of measuring compliance in regard to:
  • Excavation permit issuing procedure
  • Construction of protective support systems
  • Work practices being performed within the trench/excavation
4.9 Reporting, Assessment and Corrective Actions

Processes must be in place for the reporting, assessment, and correction of hazards identified with equipment used for digging and protective support systems or trenching practices and must address:
  • Actions required to stand down unsafe equipment or stop work
  • The recording of actions taken to correct the hazard or defect

5. Glossary of Terms


The person designated to ensure that the assigned requirement is implemented. This person is held liable and answerable to the level of compliance against the stated requirement.

Construction Safety

Permission granted by the relevant Manager or nominee to carry out specific tasks.

Angle of Repose
Angle (or incline) from the horizontal surface at which the excavation wall is cut.

Competent Person

A person having a combination of training, education, experience, acquired knowledge and skills enabling them with the capability to perform specified tasks to a pre-determined quality, which may be assessed against, defined criteria.

Bench (benching)

Method of protecting employees from cave-in by excavating the sides of an excavation to form one or more horizontal levels or steps, usually separated by vertical or near-vertical surfaces.


A firm or person employed under a contract to provide services to firm as distinct from a contract of employment. 

Department Manager

The person nominated by the company as Manager under the organizational structure, also the most senior position within a firm contracting work to firm.

Excavation/ Trench

Man-made cut, cavity, trench or depression in the earth surface formed by the removal of soil and rock.


Are all people including company employees, sub contractors, third party contractors and visitors which work within the firm managed operation and/or company employees which a performing work for the operation outside the lease area

Potential to cause a Fatality / Risk of a fatality

A hazard that has been identified that if not properly controlled will contribute to a fatal incident. This can be derived from previous fatal incident experience and /or having being identified by means of a risk assessment as having a consequence for fatal injuries.

Protective Support System

Method of protecting employees from cave-in, from material that could fall or roll from the face or wall into an excavation, or from collapse of adjacent structures. Protective support systems include support systems, sloping and benching, shields, and other devices or methods that provide necessary protection.


Digging the sides at an incline away from the deepest part of an excavation to prevent cave-in. The angle required depends on factors such as soil type, environmental conditions (wet or dry soil), and equipment, structures, soil or other material near the edge of excavation.

Soil Type

Soils are characterized by their physical properties and type - A, B or C.
  • Type A -are cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 1.5 tons per square foot (144 kPa) or greater.
  • Type B- are cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength greater than 0.5 tons per square foot (48 kPa) but less than 1.5 (144 kPa).
  • Type C -are cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 0.5 tons per square foot (48kPa) or less.

Construction Safety : Safe Work Permits

Topic : Construction Safety 

Safe Work Permits


Certain safeguards that normally protect the worker may have to be removed when repair or maintenance work is performed. When this occurs, the hazards involved need to be identified and a safe work system developed to eliminate or control these hazards A safe work permit is document that identifies the work to be done, the hazard(s) involved, and the precautions to be taken. It ensures that all hazards and precautions have been considered before work begins. Safe work permits should always be used when work is performed by an outside agency or employer.


What is a safe work permit?

A safe work permit is a written record that authorizes specific work, at a specific work location, for a specific time period. Permits are used for controlling and co-coordinating work to establish and maintain safe working conditions. They ensure that all foreseeable hazards have been considered and that the appropriate precautions are defined and carried out in the correct sequence. The permit is an agreement between the issuer and the receiver that documents the conditions, preparations, precautions, and limitations that need to be clearly understood before work begins. The permit records the steps to be taken to prepare the equipment, building, or area for the work, and the safety precautions, safety equipment, or specific procedures that must be followed to enable the worker(s) to safety complete the work. The safe work permit helps to identify and control hazards, but does not, by itself, make the job safe.

Who benefits from a work permit program?

  • ƒ Any industry that has a significant risk because of particular hazards.
  • ƒ Any prime contractor who lets out or sub-contracts work to others to do maintenance or other hazardous work. ƒ
  •  Organizations that have individual employees working in isolated areas and performing non-routine work.

Why use a work permit?

All work exposes the worker to some degree of hazard. This degree of hazard determines the type of safeguards required to protect the worker. Most routine work has defined safe work practices or procedures. In the absence of such procedures, safe work permits should be used. Workers engaged in maintenance work may be at risk if the machinery they are working on is started unexpectedly. Such machinery and equipment needs to be isolated by blanking, blinding, or a power lockout system.
These procedures can be clearly identified by a work permit system. Certain types or conditions of work, such as confined space entry, flammable or explosive situations, exposure to harmful substances or high voltage electrical equipment, and the transfer of hazardous work from one work shift to the next are examples of where safe work practices or the use of work permits is essential. Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act and OHS Regulation require employers to provide workers with a safe place of work and to identify known safety hazards. This can be partly achieved through the use of a safe work permit system. Verbal instructions can be misinterpreted or forgotten, whereas a great deal of control is achieved through the use of safe work practices or safe work permits.

Types of safe work permits

The type of safe work permit required is determined by the nature of the work to be performed and the hazards that must be controlled or eliminated. The range of activities and locations makes it impossible for a single type of permit to be suitable for all situations. The following types are most commonly used and examples are provided at the end of this Safety Bulletin.

Hot Work Permit

Hot work permits are used when heat or sparks are generated by work such as welding, burning, cutting, riveting, grinding, drilling, and where work involves the use of pneumatic hammers and chippers, non-explosion proof electrical equipment (lights, tools, and heaters), and internal combustion engines.
Three types of hazardous situations need to be considered when performing hot work:
(a)the presence of flammable materials in the equipment;
(b)the presence of combustible materials that burn or give off flammable vapors when heated; and
(c)the presence of flammable gas in the atmosphere, or gas entering from an adjacent area, such as sewers that have not been properly protected. (Portable detectors for combustible gases can be placed in the area to warn workers of the entry of these gases).

Cold Work Permit

Cold work permits are used in hazardous maintenance work that does not involve “hot work”. Cold work permits are issued when there is no reasonable source of ignition, and when all contact with harmful substances has been eliminated or appropriate precautions taken.



Confined Space Entry Permit

Confined space entry permits are used when entering any confined space such as a tank, tower, pit or sewer. The permit should be used in conjunction with a “Code of Practice” which describes all important safety aspects of the operation.

Height work permit

Electrical work permit

Excavation work permit

Scaffolding work permit                           

Radiography work permit                                  



Safety Videos

The details of Scaffolding type, Scaffold Erection procedure & safety features to be followed & Standards to be adhered are given below.


  1. The agency shall mobilise System Scaffolds for the jobs. The type of system scaffold can be ‘CUPLOK’, ‘MODEX’, TECHLOK etc. (System scaffolding is also known as unit or frame scaffolding and is composed wholly or partly of prefabricated section. There are many types of system scaffolding available which vary in design and method of erection.)
  2. Care should be taken that scaffolding is erected on a sound base with standards / vertical and ledgers / horizontal.
  3. Adjustable bases should be used with at least 1/3 threaded in. It should be adequately braced and securely tied. Diagonal bracing shall be used to provide rigidity. Standard scaffold tubes and couplers may be used for bracing. All connections on a scaffold level shall be secured before assembling next level.
  4. System scaffold components of different manufacturers shall not be intermixed unless they are compatible.

  • All scaffold components shall conform to the relevant Indian (IS: 2750- 1964 & IS 4014-1967) or equivalent. They shall be maintained in good condition. Damaged or deteriorated components shall not be used.
  • Tubes shall be free of cracks, surface flaws and other defects. Tubes shall be straight. All tubes should be maintained in a good condition, not corroded and regularly inspected.
  • Fittings should be regularly examined. Moving parts should be regularly lubricated for easy movement.
  • Boards shall conform to British/European standards or equivalent. Only Metallic boards shall be used at all locations. TIMBER BOARDS are not allowed.

    • Scaffold Members shall support own weight and at least 4 times maximum intended load. Contractor or supplier shall show documentary proof on this aspect.
    • Scaffolds exceeding 38m (125 ft) height and scaffolds to suit special application and those required for unusual heights or for use in abnormal circumstances shall be designed by a qualified engineer and approved by authorities.
    • The following codes shall be adhered during erection of scaffolding.
      • Code of practice for Steel Tubular Scaffolding IS: 4014 – 1967 (Part II)
      • Safety Code for scaffolds & ladders IS: 3696 – 1987 (Part I) and IS 3696 – 1991 (Part-2) –Code of Safety
      • OSHA 3150 2002 (USA) – A guide to Scaffold use in the construction industry
      • OISD – GDN – 192 – Safety practices during construction. 
    • A good base is essential, so the ground or floor on which the scaffolding is going to stand should be carefully examined. Soil or made up ground will need consolidating.
    • Sole plates at least 9" x 1½" (230 mm x 40 mm) cross section are required to spread the load on earth, made up ground, asphalted surface etc. Sole plates shall extend under at least two standards. For Scaffolds resting on concrete surface or steel structure where there is no risk of displacing or sinking, base plate may rest directly on the surface without a sole plate.
  3. STANDARDS (Vertical Tubes/Uprights/Columns/Posts):
    • Standards shall be pitched on base plates and sole plates.
    • Joints in standards should not occur in the same lift. Joints should be arranged so that they occur as near as possible to a ledger. All standards shall be vertical.
  4. LEDGERS (Horizontal Tubes/Runners):
    • Ledgers shall be securely fixed to standards as per the system scaffold design. Joints in ledgers should be staggered.
    •  All decking shall be close-boarded, each board resting evenly on at least three supports. Boards shall over sail end supports by at least 2" (50 mm) but shall not over sail by more than four times their thickness.
    • Supports for scaffold boards shall be spaced with due regard to the nature of the platform and the load it will bear.
    • Maximum permissible distances between supports for scaffold boards should not exceed 5 feet.
    • Except on decking contiguous to the curved surface of a cylindrical or spherical structure, boards shall be laid flush (level) wherever possible.
    • Boards shall be laid with no openings more than 1 inch (25 mm)between adjacent boards or scaffold member.
    • Decking shall be kept free from unnecessary obstructions and from materials, rubbish and projecting nails.
    • Decking which has become slippery with oil or other substance shall be immediately replaced.
    • Boards shall be secured from movement. Nylon or other combustible material shall not be used anywhere in the scaffolding.
    • Guardrails and toe boards shall be fitted at edges of decking from which persons or material could fall a distance exceeding 6 feet (1.8 m). Top guardrail shall be not less than 3' (90 cm) and not more than 3' 9" (1.15 m) high. Mid rail shall be provided. Toe boards should be 6" (15 cm) high and secured in position by toe board clips or other means.
    • Guardrails and toe boards shall be fitted to the inside of standards to prevent outward movement, unless they are so designed and used as to prevent such movement.
    • If guardrails and toe boards are removed for the movement of materials, they shall be restored as soon as practicable.
    • Where materials are to be stacked on a working platform or working place above the height of the toe boards, suitable barriers such as nets or metal sheets shall be positioned so as to prevent the fall of such material from the platform or place.
  8. ACCESS:
    • Access to a working platform is best achieved by providing a separate ladder tower or cantilevered access platform so as not to obstruct the platform and to minimize the possibility of persons falling through the gap in the guardrail or decking this is not practical, the top handrail should be hinged or a hinged short bar provided at access point.
    • Use of monkey ladder to access working platforms on scaffolds is not recommended, as it will obstruct free entry through the ladder cage.
    • Executor, Issuer and HPCL Safety shall jointly review the job if the wind speed exceeds 50 kmph. Personnel shall not be on any scaffold or other temporary elevated work area during storms or high winds, sustained winds more than 65 kmph (40 mph) - unless the scaffold or working level is indoors. Outdoor scaffolds or elevated work platforms shall not be used during thunderstorms or when there is likelihood of lightning. Anemometers should be available with the agency.
    • Safety nets shall be provided while erecting scaffolds from 2.5 m height onwards as a safety measure. Wherever safety nets cannot be provided, soft landing bags shall be provided. While erecting scaffolds above 2.5m height either safety net or soft landing bag should be provided. Safety net & landing bags should also be provided at areas where fall from heights above 2.5m is possible & there are no working platforms.

  1. Scaffolding shall be erected, altered and dismantled by experienced workmen working under the direction of a competent supervisor.
  2. The procedure for erection & dismantling should be such that an unstable condition is not reached at any time.
  3. Scaffolders shall wear safety harness with secured lanyards (2). When changing positions they shall position securely before unhooking and re-hooking the lanyards. All safety harness shall carry two lanyards to provide 2 life lines for the scaffolders.
  4. Scaffolding materials and other objects shall not be dropped, thrown, tipped or shot from heights. Drop area shall be barricaded.
  5. Extension or alteration of scaffold is not permitted on the approved part of scaffold being used at that time. Erection/dismantling directly above an approved scaffold platform shall not be allowed.
  6. During dismantling, no component, which endangers the stability of the remaining structure, shall be removed. The procedure of dismantling shall be orderly and planned and should proceed generally from the top in horizontal sections.
  7. Components shall be lowered hand to hand in an orderly fashion or brought down by crane, gin wheel or other suitable means. Dismantled scaffold materials shall be lowered to the ground and not stored on the scaffold.


  1. Green and red scaffold tags are used to inform/warn users about the readiness of a scaffold. Scaffold Checklist is used while inspecting scaffolds before certifying them for use. The checklist is provided on the backside of tags which has to be filled by the agency erecting scaffolding.
  2. Tags shall be displayed near access points at eye level.
  3. Agency shall prominently display red scaffold tag (DO NOT USE SCAFFOLD) when scaffolding is incomplete, whether it be during erection, dismantling or alteration. Access to those parts, which are incomplete, shall be barred. Barricade should be such that users would not accidentally step in to the unfinished portion.
  4. No portion of the scaffold should be utilized unless that portion is fully decked, braced, tied, demarcated and certified.
  5. Scaffold supervisor of scaffold agency shall inspect the scaffold after completion of erection and certify using the checklist.
  6. Duly signed green tag (Use Scaffold) shall be displayed. It shall be reinspected at least every seven days or after modification/alteration and after weather is likely to have affected stability, whichever occurs earlier.
  7. Failure on the part of the agency in ensuring the above requirements shall be viewed critically & necessary action to be taken.
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