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Showing posts with label First Aid. Show all posts
Showing posts with label First Aid. Show all posts

First Aid-Head injury

First Aid-Head injury :

Introduction:

The brain is a soft and delicate organ. A hard blow to the head can injure the brain or spinal cord even when there are no visible signs of trauma to the scalp or face. That’s why all head injuries are considered serious and should be assessed by your doctor or the nearest hospital emergency department.
Always call triple zero (000) for an ambulance in an emergency. This article offers first aid suggestions, but is not a substitute for professional medical care.

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Traumatic head injuries are a major cause of death, and disability but it might be best to refer to the damage done as traumatic brain injury.
The purpose of the head, including the skull and face, is to protect the brain against injury. In addition to the bony protection, the brain is covered in tough fibrous layers called meninges and bathed in fluid that may provide a little shock absorption.

When an injury occurs, loss of brain function can occur even without visible damage to the head. Force applied to the head may cause the brain to be directly injured or shaken, bouncing against the inner wall of the skull. The trauma can potentially cause bleeding in the spaces surrounding the brain, bruise the brain tissue, or damage the nerve connections within the brain.
Caring for the victim with a head injury begins with making certain that the ABCs of resuscitation are addressed (airway, breathing, circulation). Many individuals with head injuries are multiple trauma victims and the care of their brain may take place at the same time other injuries are stabilized and treated.

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Skull Fracture

The skull is made up of many bones that form a solid container for the brain. The face is the front part of the head and also helps protect the brain from injury. Depending upon the location of the fracture, there may or may not be a relationship between a fractured skull and underlying brain injury. Of note, a fracture, break, and crack all mean the same thing, that the integrity of the bone has been compromised. One term does not presume a more severe injury than the others. Fractures of the skull are described based on their location, the appearance of the fracture, and whether the bone has been pushed in.
Location is important because some skull bones are thinner and more fragile than others. For example, the temporal bone above the ear is relatively thin and can be more easily broken than the occipital bone at the back of the skull. The middle meningeal artery is located in a groove within the temporal bone. It is susceptible to damage and bleeding if the fracture crosses that groove.

More Head Injury Overview

Intracranial Bleeding

  • Intracranial (intra=within + cranium=skull) describes any bleeding within the skull. Intracerebral bleeding describes bleeding within the brain itself. More specific descriptions are used based upon where the blood is located.
  • Bleeding in the skull may or may not be associated with a skull fracture. An intact skull is no guarantee that there is not underlying bleeding, or hemorrhage, in the brain or its surrounding spaces. For that reason, plain X-rays of the skull are not routinely performed.
  • Epidural, sub dural, and subarachnoid bleeding are terms that describe bleeding in the spaces between the meninges, the fibrous layered coverings of the brain. Sometimes, the terms hemorrhage (bleeding) and hematoma (blood clot) are interchanged. Because the skull is a solid box, any blood that accumulates within the skull can increase the pressure within it and compress the brain. Moreover, blood is irritating and can cause edema or swelling as excess fluid leaks from the surrounding blood vessels. This is no different than the swelling that can occur surrounding a bruise on an arm or leg. The only difference is that there is no room within the skull to accommodate that swelling.

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Two types of head injury

Head injuries can be classified as:

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  • Open – with bleeding wounds to the face or head.
  • Closed – no visible signs of injury to the face or head.

Closed head injuries

The soft, jelly-like brain is protected by the skull. The brain doesn’t fill the skull entirely – it floats in a clear, nourishing liquid called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid acts as a shock absorbed, but its protective value is limited.

The kinetic energy of a small knock to the head or face can be absorbed by the cerebrospinal fluid, but a hard impact can smash the brain against the inside of the skull. This can bruise the brain or tear blood vessels.If blood and blood serum start to escape,the swelling is contained within the skull. Intracranial pressure (pressure inside the skull) can cause permanent damage by literally crushing the brain.

Open head injuries


An open, or penetrating, head injury means you were hit with an object that broke the skull and entered the brain. This is more likely to happen when you move at high speed, such as going through the windshield during a car accident. It can also happen from a gunshot to the head.
Head injuries include:
  • Concussion, in which the brain is shaken, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury.
  • Skull fractures.
Head injuries may cause bleeding:
  • In the brain tissue.
  • In the layers that surround the brain

Spinal injuries

A person who has sustained a head injury may have also injured their spine. In elderly people, the force required to cause neck injuries is much less than in younger people. It can even occur from a standing height fall in the elderly.
It is important to keep the injured person’s head in line with their neck. Avoid twisting their head or allowing their head to roll to the side. If you can, roll a t-shirt, towel or similar soft item and place it around their neck to keep their head straight. Don’t try to move them unless there is an urgent need to.
Signs and symptoms of spinal injuries may include:
  • Body lying in an awkward, unnatural position.
  • Skin feeling clammy and cool.
  • Reporting unusual tingling sensations in the limbs or an absence of any sensation, including pain.
  • Inability to move limbs.

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Toddlers and head injuries

Toddlers fall over all the time. Parents should note that:
  • A fall from the child’s own height usually isn’t enough to cause a serious head injury.
  • The size of a bump on the head has no connection with the severity of injury.
  • Minor head injuries, like a bump on the head, can be treated with cuddles and an age-appropriate dose of children’s pain-relieving syrup.
Medical attention should be sought immediately if the child shows any signs of serious head injury, particularly if they are unusually drowsy or vomiting, if you think the fall was heavy enough to have caused harm or if the child appeared to be unconscious or did not immediately cry after the fall.

Examples of a heavy fall are falling down some stairs, rolling from a normal height change table to a hard floor, falling from a bed to a hard surface or a head strike on bedside furniture. If in doubt, see your doctor
Head injury is a common reason for an emergency room visit. A large number of people who suffer head injuries are children. TBI (traumatic brain injury) accounts for over 1 in 6 injury-related hospital admissions each year.
Alternative Names :
Brain injury; Head trauma

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Head Injury Causes:

Adults suffer head injuries most frequently due to falls, motor vehicle crashes, colliding or being struck by an object, and assaults. Falls and being struck are the most common causes of head injury in children.

Causes

Common causes of head injury include:
  • Accidents at home, work, outdoors, or while playing sports
  • Falls
  • Physical assault
  • Traffic accidents
Most of these injuries are minor because the skull protects the brain. Some injuries are severe enough to require a stay in the hospital.

Symptoms and signs:

  • altered conscious state, often deteriorating over time.
  • blurred or double vision.
  • a thumping or pounding headache
  • nausea or vomiting
  • loss of balance and coordination.
  • altered sensation in the fingers or down one side of the body.
  • loss of short-term memory – e.g. recent events.
  • noisy breathing.
  • leaking fluid from the nose or one ear.
  • history of a blow to the head.
A severe head injury is when:
  • Consciousness is lost for more than 30 seconds.
  • You or your child are drowsy and do not respond to commands as normal.
  • Has unequal pupils or arm and leg weakness.
  • Has something stuck in their head (a phrase or sound).
  • Has a second fit or convulsion, other than the single brief experience when injury occurred.
A moderate head injury:

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  • Has lost conciousness for less than 30 seconds.
  • Is alert and responds to normal commands.
  • Has vomited two or more times.
  • Has a headache.
  • One brief fit may have occurred straight after initial injury.
  • May have large bruise, lump or cut on head.
A minor head injury:
  • You or your child did not lose consciousness.
  • Alert and interactive as usual.
  • May have vomited but only once.
  • May have bruising or cuts to the head.
  • Otherwise normal.

Bruises from a Head Injury

Small bangs on the head can cause large bruises and large soft swellings. This is because the scalp has a very good blood supply and the bone of the skull is just under the skin, meaning there is ‘no’ padding to absorb the knock.
Sometimes, the severity of the bruise can be controlled with the application of ice to the site of swelling (if there is no ice, try a packet of frozen veggies such as frozen peas). Make sure you wrap the ice in a damp cloth, do not put something very cold directly on the skin.
The swelling of the area of injury should go down quite quickly, leaving the colored bruise and a small spot of pain. If the swelling sight stays, you or your child should seek medical advice.

Cuts from a Head Injury

Cuts on the scalp will bleed a lot because of the good blood supply in the scalp. Put a clean dressing over the cut and apply pressure to the cut for five or 10 minutes. If the bleeding has not stopped within 10 minutes, it is recommended you seek medical advice. If the cut is longer than 1cm long, the cut may have a quicker and stronger recovery if treated by the doctor or medical department.

First aid for head injury

In cases where there is a serious head injury, always call an ambulance.

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First aid when the injured person is conscious

Encourage the injured person to minimize any movement of their head or neck. Scalp injuries can bleed profusely, so control any significant blood loss from head wounds with direct pressure and a dressing. While examining the wound, avoid disturbing blood clots forming in the hair. Reassure the person and try to keep them calm.

First aid when the injured person is unconscious

The person should not be moved unless they are in immediate danger. Any unnecessary movement may cause greater complications to the head injury itself, the spine or other associated injuries. A good rule is that if the head is injured, the neck may be injured too.

Your role is to protect the injured person from any potential dangers at the scene. You should also monitor their airway and breathing until the arrival of an ambulance. If the person’s breathing becomes impaired due to a problem with their airway, you may need to very carefully tilt their head back (and support it) until normal breathing returns. If the person stops breathing or has no pulse, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be required.

How you can help:

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1.    Assess the patient
  • Assess the patient’s conscious state.
  • If not fully conscious, place the patient on the side in a supported position.
  • Check that the airway is clear and for signs of life every few minutes.
  • If conscious, help the patient to rest in the position of greatest comfort.
  • Sometimes patients with head injury may become agitated. Enlist friends or family to calm and reassure the patient. Consider calling the police if the safety of the patient or others becomes threatened.
Call for an ambulance.
2.    Give care until arrival of the ambulance
  • Cover any wound with a sterile dressing.
  • If there is any discharge from the ears or nose, cover the area with a sterile dressing.
DO NOT pack the ears or nose with dressings.
3.    Monitor the patient
  • DO NOT leave the patient alone and keep a constant watch on breathing and consciousness level.
  • Check for and treat any other injuries that may have been overlooked.

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4.    Maintain body heat
  • Cover the patient lightly with clothing or a blanket and protect from extremes of temperature.
Always arrange for a doctor to check the patient in the case of a head injury even if it appears that a full recovery has occurred. In some cases the recognition of serious head injuries may be delayed for 24 to 48 hours due to a gradual increase in swelling or bruising around the brain.
  • Note: When a head injury is suspected in a player during contact sport, the first aider should recommend that the patient does not return to the game. The patient should be seen by a doctor for clearance to continue playing.

Head Injury Prevention

  • Falls are the number one cause of head injuries. Some, like toddlers falling when learning to walk, are unavoidable. Others may be preventable, especially in the elderly. Opportunities exist to minimize the risk of falling at home with the use of proper floor coverings, the use of assist devices such as canes and walkers, and by evaluating homes for high risk areas like bathrooms and stairs. A primary care health care practitioner or a county health nurse may be able to help with home assessment.

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  • Routine use of helmets may decrease head injury while riding a bicycle or motorcycle. Their use is also encouraged for sporting activities like skateboarding, skiing, and snowboarding.
Head injuries are a major consequence of motor vehicle crashes. Lives can be saved by wearing seat belts, driving cars with air bags, and by avoiding risky driving behavior (drinking and driving, texting while driving).

Do Not

  • Do NOT wash a head wound that is deep or bleeding a lot.
  • Do NOT remove any object sticking out of a wound.
  • Do NOT move the person unless absolutely necessary.
  • Do NOT shake the person if he or she seems dazed.
  • Do NOT remove a helmet if you suspect a serious head injury.
  • Do NOT pick up a fallen child with any sign of head injury.
  • Do NOT drink alcohol within 48 hours of a serious head injury.
A serious head injury that involves bleeding or brain damage must be treated in a hospital.
 

SAFETY SERIES:– 8 | First Aid For Burns


SAFETY SERIES:– 8

FIRST AID FOR BURNS

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Sometimes, inspite of taking precautions, fires do occur and people get burnt. Here’s what you should do in an emergency to minimize the effect of burn:



  • In the event of a burn injury, the affected portion of the body should be placed under cool, slowly running water, or be immersed in cool water for about 10 minutes or till pain subsides.
  • Remove jewellery before the burnt area begins to swell and do not break blisters.
  • Cover burnt area with a clean, sterile dressing.
  • Remove clothing from affected area if burn is superficial. (Superficial burns involve only outer layers of skin).
  • Do not remove clothing if it is a deep tissue burn. (Deep tissue burns involve the entire thickness of the skin).
  • Lay the victim down.
  • Badly burnt limb should be immobilized (hold in such a way that it cannot be moved).
  • Give small amounts of cool water If victim is conscious. (If unconscious, DO NOT give any liquid).
  • Reassure the victim and keep him calm.
  • Immediately take the victim to the hospital, which has a burn-ward.
  • Never apply ghee, butter, oil or any greasy substance on the burnt area.

           REMEMBER TO POUR WATER OVER BURNS
 

First Aid Procedures: Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards


First Aid Procedures : Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
 


Code Definition
Eye: Irrigate immediately If this chemical contacts the eyes, immediately wash (irrigate) the eyes with large amounts of water, occasionally lifting the lower and upper lids. Get medical attention immediately.
Eye: Irrigate promptly If this chemical contacts the eyes, promptly wash (irrigate) the eyes with large amounts of water, occasionally lifting the lower and upper lids. Get medical attention if any discomfort continues.
Eye: Frostbite If eye tissue is frozen, seek medical attention immediately; if tissue is not frozen, immediately and thoroughly flush the eyes with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the lower and upper eyelids. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, get medical attention as soon as possible.
Eye: Medical attention Self-explanatory
Skin: Blot/brush away If irritation occurs, gently blot or brush away excess.
Skin: Dust off solid; water flush If this solid chemical contacts the skin, dust it off immediately and then flush the contaminated skin with water. If this chemical or liquids containing this chemical penetrate the clothing, promptly remove the clothing and flush the skin with water. Get medical attention immediately.
Skin: Frostbite If frostbite has occurred, seek medical attention immediately; do NOT rub the affected areas or flush them with water. In order to prevent further tissue damage, do NOT attempt to remove frozen clothing from frostbitten areas. If frostbite has NOT occurred, immediately and thoroughly wash contaminated skin with soap and water.
Skin: Molten flush immediately/solid-liquid soap wash immediately If this molten chemical contacts the skin, immediately flush the skin with large amounts of water. Get medical attention immediately. If this chemical (or liquids containing this chemical) contacts the skin, promptly wash the contaminated skin with soap and water. If this chemical or liquids containing this chemical penetrate the clothing, immediately remove the clothing and wash the skin with soap and water. If irritation persists after washing, get medical attention.
Skin: Soap flush immediately If this chemical contacts the skin, immediately flush the contaminated skin with soap and water. If this chemical penetrates the clothing, immediately remove the clothing and flush the skin with water. If irritation persists after washing, get medical attention.
Skin: Soap flush promptly If this chemical contacts the skin, promptly flush the contaminated skin with soap and water. If this chemical penetrates the clothing, promptly remove the clothing and flush the skin with water. If irritation persists after washing, get medical attention.
Skin: Soap promptly/molten flush immediately If this solid chemical or a liquid containing this chemical contacts the skin, promptly wash the contaminated skin with soap and water. If irritation persists after washing, get medical attention. If this molten chemical contacts the skin or nonimpervious clothing, immediately flush the affected area with large amounts of water to remove heat. Get medical attention immediately.
Skin: Soap wash If this chemical contacts the skin, wash the contaminated skin with soap and water.
Skin: Soap wash immediately If this chemical contacts the skin, immediately wash the contaminated skin with soap and water. If this chemical penetrates the clothing, immediately remove the clothing, wash the skin with soap and water, and get medical attention promptly.
Skin: Soap wash promptly If this chemical contacts the skin, promptly wash the contaminated skin with soap and water. If this chemical penetrates the clothing, promptly remove the clothing and wash the skin with soap and water. Get medical attention promptly.
Skin: Water flush If this chemical contacts the skin, flush the contaminated skin with water. Where there is evidence of skin irritation, get medical attention.
Skin: Water flush immediately If this chemical contacts the skin, immediately flush the contaminated skin with water. If this chemical penetrates the clothing, immediately remove the clothing and flush the skin with water. Get medical attention promptly.
Skin: Water flush promptly If this chemical contacts the skin, flush the contaminated skin with water promptly. If this chemical penetrates the clothing, immediately remove the clothing and flush the skin with water promptly. If irritation persists after washing, get medical attention.
Skin: Water wash If this chemical contacts the skin, wash the contaminated skin with water.
Skin: Water wash immediately If this chemical contacts the skin, immediately wash the contaminated skin with water. If this chemical penetrates the clothing, immediately remove the clothing and wash the skin with water. If symptoms occur after washing, get medical attention immediately.
Skin: Water wash promptly If this chemical contacts the skin, promptly wash the contaminated skin with water. If this chemical penetrates the clothing, promptly remove the clothing and wash the skin with water. If irritation persists after washing, get medical attention.
Breath: Respiratory support If a person breathes large amounts of this chemical, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, perform artificial resuscitation. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention as soon as possible.
Breath: Fresh air If a person breathes large amounts of this chemical, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. Other measures are usually unnecessary.
Breath: Fresh air, 100% O2 If a person breathes large amounts of this chemical, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, perform artificial respiration. When breathing is difficult, properly trained personnel may assist the affected person by administering 100% oxygen. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention as soon as possible.
Swallow: Medical attention immediately If this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention immediately.

First Aid Kit - Why Required


First Aid Kit - Why Required


  • What happens when you experience a minor cut or injury?
  • Do you clean and treat the wound immediately, or go on with your task and worry about it later? 
  • Do you have a first aid kit nearby and do you know where one is kept? 

All good questions that we don’t ask until after a minor cut or injury occurs.


Be Prepared: First aid kits are essential in our daily lives, as accidents occur when we least expect them. If you are at work, home, school, or in the car, you should have a first aid kit and supplies close by. There are numerous per-assembled kits that you can buy or you can make up your own depending on your needs and activities.

First Aid: Administer first aid right away to clean and protect the wound and to prevent the wound from becoming infected or more severe. Even minor injuries at work should be reported to HSE Department with Incident Reports. Filing an Incident Report will make sure that the proper treatment is delivered and those precautions can be taken to prevent future injuries. The report you make today, may help prevent a more severe injury tomorrow!

Location: In office the first aid kit is kept at the Reception Desk. Where is your nearest first aid kit? It doesn’t do any good if you don’t know where to find it!

Get Trained: Even the most well equipped first aid kit fails to help the person who lacks the basic understanding of first aid care. Get good quality & excellent first aid training and you are encouraged to take advantage of any training opportunities that come your way.

First Aid Kit

First Aid Kit

Introduction:

First aid kits are a legal requirement for every workplace. It must also be clearly marked in a green box with a white cross on it. Your staff should all be made aware of where their nearest first aid box is located; it should be easily accessible for people and the contents should be checked regularly to make sure all items are in stock and in date.
Keep a first aid kit readily available in your home, cottage, car, boat, workplace, and recreation area. Store it in a dry place and replace used or outdated contents regularly.
The Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981 require you to provide adequate and appropriate first-aid equipment, facilities and people so your employees can be given immediate help if they are injured or taken ill at work.
What is ‘adequate and appropriate’ will depend on the circumstances in your workplace and you should assess what your first-aid needs are.

The minimum first-aid provision on any work site is:

  • a suitably stocked first-aid box 
  • an appointed person to take charge of first-aid arrangements 
  • information for employees about first-aid arrangements. 
It is important to remember that accidents and illness can happen at any time. First aid provision needs to be available at all times people are at work.
There are so many options and so much that could be in a kit.
To find out which first aid kit is best for you start with the following questions:
  • Where do you plan to use it?
  • Is it for the car, home, boat, holiday or overseas travel?
  • What will it be used for?
  • What are the likely accidents or injuries that you may encounter?
Maybe the first aid kit is needed for a group activity.
  • What activities will the group be doing? "Lazing" around listening to lectures or doing extreme sports?
Depending on what you are wanting the kit for and the amount of people it needs to cover, will influence the size of the kit and the type of container you store it in. A tackle box makes a good first aid kit container or it can be as simple as a resealable clip lock bag. Where you keep the kit will also influence its size. So where will you store the kit?
  • bathroom cabinet
  • kitchen cabinet
  • car (if it is a small kit the glove compartment is most accessible)
  • boat
  • workshop
  • garage
  • backpack
Your First Aid Kit should always be kept in an area where it can be easily found and accessed.

Variety of first aid kit checklists:

Basic First Aid Kit - A basic first aid kit doesn't need to include every piece of First Aid equipment though it might as well have basic yet useful content.
Motor Cycle First Aid Kit - A Motorcycle First Aid Kit has special needs. An ordinary first aid kit just won't cut it. They need a different balance of first aid content. Check out our Motorcycle First Aid Kit Checklist.
Marine First Aid Kit - If you get injured on a boat you may not be near help. You need to be able to treat yourself and your shipmates for any emergency that might arise. You will be set for almost any boating injury with this Marine First Aid Kit Checklist.
Wilderness First Aid Kit - We have put together a wilderness first aid kit checklist which is the minimum of what you should be taking with you. It will help you put together a first aid kit that will tackle many injuries and ailments that might come your way while in the wilds.
Backpacking First Aid Kit - When going backpacking taking a first aid kit is a must as you can't always find a doctor near by. It is vital to be prepared for emergencies. Check out our backpacking first aid kit checklist. Also there are questions for you to answer that will help narrow down what is crucial to pack in the first aid kit.
Hiking First Aid Kit - Never be complacent when packing for a hike and always carry a hiking first aid kit with you. The one time you don't will be the time you need it. We’ve created a list of some important safety items to consider when putting together your own hiking first aid kit.
Travel First Aid Kit - When traveling research your destination. Some areas may have dangerous or venomous wildlife while others are notorious for having polluted water that harbors nastiest such as giardia or the like. Be sure you know what to avoid and take what you need as a safety precaution. Checklist Coming Soon
Vehicle First Aid Kit - It makes sense to have a Vehicle First Aid Kit on hand for accidents you may come across while traveling on the road. You may need to deal with injuries ranging from bruises, cuts and scrapes, to moderate injuries, such as broken bones. Then there are the more serious, life-altering injuries like severe bleeding, or even an unconscious person where you may need to do CPR. Be prepared.

A few more important suggestions:

  • Remember to always check medication expiry dates and replace outdated items in your kit.
  • Store the kit out of the reach of little ones who might find it an interesting play thing to explore.
  • Know how to use the items in the kit - Become familiar with a first aid manual you find easy to understand so that you will not be scrabbling to learn something from scratch but will be able to scan instructions to remind you what to do.
  • Keep your first aid manual with the first aid kit at all times.
  • If you have not done a First Aid Training Course, strongly recommends that you either do a course in your local area or online.

Basic first aid kit:

A basic first aid kit doesn't need to include every piece of First Aid equipment although it might as well have basic yet useful content.
So what do we suggest goes in a basic first aid kit?
  • Basic first aid manual - one that is easy to understand. Sometimes it's hard to remember what to do in an emergency. A pocket-sized manual comes in handy, taking you step-by-step through first aid care. We think it is best to read through it so the layout and contents are familiar before you need it in the heat of the moment.
  • Antiseptic wipes or gel - for cleaning your hands before touching open cuts and wounds.
  • Gauze and non-adhesive dressing pads - preferably sterile. They come in all sizes. One option, if you are trying to save space, is to get a bigger size dressing that you can cut to size as needed. It will save space.
  • Elastic and crepe bandages - a few different widths.
  • Triangular Bandage - For slings, padding, strapping limbs to splints when fractures are suspected.
  • Adhesive Tape - I prefer paper tape as you do not have to have scissors to cut it as it will tear by just using your fingers - Get a good quality tape that will not get brittle with age or lose it's stickiness. It is useless when that occurs.
  • Curved Scissors - Scissors come in handy in many ways. Curved medical ones are great as they don't have sharp points. In an emergency you might need to cut clothes away from an injury. With sharp edges it is easy to poke through something and cause further injury when you are in a hurry or under stress.
  • Two tongue depressors or ice block sticks for finger splints.
  • Instant Cold Pack/s - These are so useful for burns, bruising, swelling and sprains. They are single use, so if you have space grab a couple for your kit.
  • Band Aids - a variety of shapes and sizes for small cuts and scrapes. I find the long strips of cloth tape with the padding in place already is great because you can cut it to size.
  • Tweezers - A good pair of tweezers has easy-to-grip handles and can be used for splinter removal and other first aid procedures. Do not bother with a poor quality pair that will not grip a splinter you are trying to pull out as you will just get frustrated.
  • Pain Reliever Capsules or liquid (liquid is best for children who can not swallow tablets).
  • Anti-histamine - tablets or liquid (again for those that can not swallow tablets).
  • Stings and Bites Cream- I prefer one with a local anesthetic especially for the kids. My son scratches his bites when he is asleep and ends up with bleeding and weeping sores so knocking out the itchiness of bites before he goes to sleep reduces the scratching.

Other things to consider when putting together a basic first aid kit:

When an accident or injury occurs you may not have much time to read a manual while trying to give first aid to an injured person. We at First Aid anywhere recommend you do a First Aid Training Course to learn what first aid challenges you may encounter and how to treat them.

Motorcycle First Aid Kit

A Motorcycle First Aid Kit has special needs:

An ordinary first aid kit just won't cut it. This is mainly to do with size, but also the types of common injuries that bikers may experience need a different balance of first aid content.

Common injuries for motorcycle riders are:

  • Burns - sunburn and heat burns, minor and less common major, from exhaust pipes and other sources.
  • Eye injuries - things flying or blowing into the eyes.
  • Cuts, Abrasions and scrapes - usually from hitting the road literally.
  • Fractures.
When packing a Motorcycle First Aid Kit, or looking to buy one, consider kit contents that are used for stopping bleeding, treating burns, abrasions and cuts and eye injuries.
It is important to know the purpose of and how to use every item in your motorcycle first aid kit - otherwise it's just taking up space.

Motorcycle First Aid Kit Checklist:

  • A good compact first aid book.
  • Antiseptic Wipes - 5 or 6 packet wipes.
  • Antibiotic Ointment or powder- Individual packets.
  • Anti-microbial Hand Cleaner - Water less: They make water less hand cleaners in individual packets. Bring five or six. There are small bottles of Anti-microbial gel as well.
  • Band-aids - A variety of shapes and sizes for small cuts and scrapes. We like to pack knuckle and fingertip band aids. They really work a treat and cling on well.
  • Stern-strips (Butter-fly sutures, Adhesive Sutures, Adhesive Closures) - used to pull a small gaping cut or wound together.
  • Large Combine Pads - For heavy bleeding.
  • 5 Large Sterile Gauze Pads - For bleeding. Most first aid kits do not have enough gauze or absorbent dressings to be useful in a motorcycle kit, so don't skimp on the dressings.
  • 5 Medium Sterile Gauze - If you don't want to carry this smaller size carry extra of the larger size and cut them down to what you need.
  • CPR Mask.
  • Emergency Blanket - These are great for retaining body heat and can be used as a reflector for rain and ground cover.
  • Normal saline 10ml vials - this doubles as an eye wash or wound cleansing.
  • Instant Cold Pack/s - These are so useful with burns, bruising, swelling and sprains. They are single use so if you have space grab a couple for your kit. 
  • Burn cream or gel - Aloe Vera aids in healing, pain relief, has anti-inflammatory properties, helps prevent blistering and scarring.
  • Glow Stick - High intensity emergency glow stick for directing traffic or signalling for help.
  • Heavy Duty Zip-lock Bags - Tons of uses including removing used and contaminated gauze, gloves and dressings.
  • Latex gloves - Bring a minimum of 4 pairs.
  • Non-deodorant Feminine Pads - This is an old first aider trick. Feminine pads are highly absorbent and great for stopping heavy bleeding. Cut them in half for easy storage and usability.
  • Other medication - Pack the travel size or sample packets not the bottles. These are usually small packets that contain 2 to 4 pills. Or put the pills in small zip-lock bags and label them carefully.
    * Anti-diarrhoea tablets
    * Anti-acid
    * Antihistamine: for mild allergic reactions
    * Pain reliever
  • Triangular Bandage - For slings, padding, strapping limbs to splints when fractures are suspected.
  • Trauma shears - Go for the heavy duty pair, a size 7 1/2. You'll need to be able to cut through leather. You won't have time to unzip and undress if there is heavy bleeding you'll need to cut through the leathers. I know, I know just take a deep breath and do it.
  • Curved Scissors - Scissors come in handy in many ways. Curved medical ones are great as they don't have sharp points. In an emergency you might need to cut clothes away from an injury (not leathers this time "phew"). With sharp edges it is easy to poke through something and cause further injury when you are in a hurry or under stress.
  • Elastic and crepe bandages - a few different widths. 10cm (2") and larger are often more versatile then smaller ones.
  • Tweezers - A good pair of tweezers has easy-to-grip handles and can be used for splinter removal and other first aid procedures. Do not bother with a cheap quality pair that do not grip splinters as you will only get frustrated. I know I have.
  • Mobile phone - most people own one these days but worth mentioning anyway.
Of course the big trick is getting all this stuff in a container small enough to actually fit on the motorcycle. Look for soft sided waterproof zipper cases. And believe it or not you should be able to get all this stuff in a bag about 20 x 13 x 8 cm (7" x 5" x 3").
It can be done!

Other things to consider when putting together a Motorcycle First Aid Kit:

Consider packing these items in separate strong zip-lock bags. The reason is you will need to stuff all these items into a small bag -as mentioned above- it is very useful to use one bag for each 'type' of item such as gauze in one bag, medication in another and medical tools (scissors and tweezers) in another. Then when you pull out the items from the main bag they do not all tumble out and end up in a mess on the ground. This will not instill confidence in the person you might be helping.
With this packing system not only is it easier to find what you are looking for it also gets you familiar with what is in your kit, what it's for and how to store it on your motorcycle.
Last thing, you may not have much time to read a manual while trying to give first aid to an injured person or yourself. We recommend you do a First Aid Training Course to learn what first aid challenges you may encounter and how to treat them.

Vehicle First Aid Kit :

on hand in case you are involved in or come across an accident.

Car accident injuries range from... minor injuries, such as bruises, cuts and scrapes, to moderate injuries, such as broken bones. Then there are the more serious, life-altering injuries, or even fatal injury.
We have put together a Vehicle First Aid Kit Checklist. Use it as a starting point and adapt it to your specific circumstance, needs of passengers, locations you travel to and through as well as weather conditions.

Vehicle First Aid Kit Checklist:-

  • A good First Aid Book - including basic CPR instruction.
Over the counter items:
  • Antibiotic ointment or powder.
  • Antihistamine - for mild allergic reactions.
  • Antiseptic gel (the no need for water type) - for cleaning your hands before touching open wounds.
  • Antiseptic wipes - for wiping over small wounds, cuts and scrapes.
  • Aspirin or other pain relievers - what you would normally take for pain.
  • Burn gel with Aloe Vera - Aloe Vera aids in healing, pain relief has anti-inflammatory properties helps prevent blistering and scarring.
  • Stings and bites cream - I prefer one with a local anesthetic especially for the kids.
  • Hydro-cortisone cream - for skin inflammation and rashes.

Other contents to add to a good Vehicle First Aid Kit are:-
  • CPR Mask - learn how to perform CPR before you need it for real.
  • Elastic and crepe bandages - a few different widths.
  • Gauze and non-stick dressing pads - preferably sterile.
  • Gauze squares - for either applying cream, gels or antiseptic or for putting pressure on and absorbing blood from bleeding wounds. We prefer not to use cotton balls as the fibres can get left behind in the wound and may cause trouble later. But if that is all you have go ahead and use them as they are better then nothing.
  • Triangular bandage - For slings, padding, strapping fractured limbs to splints if a fracture is suspected.
  • Adhesive tape.
  • Band aids - a variety of shapes and sizes for small cuts and scrapes.
  • Instant cold packs - The kind you snap to make it cold. These are so useful with bruising, swelling and sprains. They are single use, so if you have space grab a couple for your kit.
  • Two tongue depressors or ice block sticks for finger splints.
  • Normal saline 10ml vials for the double use as an eye wash or wound cleansing.
  • Synthetic gloves: Put in a few pairs of these.
  • Moist towelettes/wipes - for those times when you need to clean dirt or mud etc off someone or something.
  • Saline solution - for flushing wounds and eyes.
  • Sunscreen/Insect repellent - to prevent sunburn and insect bites when that picnic or football game goes just that bit longer.
  • If going on a long trip take a thermometer.
  • Torch - the shake or wind up type so you do not need batteries.
  • Tweezers - good quality ones. The cheap quality ones often do not do the job and are therefore frustrating.
  • Curved Scissors - Scissors come in handy and have many uses. Curved medical ones are great as they don't have sharp points. In an emergency you might need to cut clothes away from an injury site and it is easy to poke through something and cause further injury when you are in a hurry or under stress.
  • Mobile phone - most people have one these days but worth mentioning.
If you have children you may need to pack:
  • Any prescription medication that your child might be taking including asthma inhalers, epi-pen or allergy medication.
  • Children's pain reliever liquid if they have trouble swallowing tablets.
  • Children's-strength liquid decongestant - again if they do not swallow tablets yet.
Storage container:
  • A tackle box or art-supply box works well for storing Vehicle First Aid Kit supplies. They are lightweight, strong for when it gets knocked about, have handles for easy carrying, and generally have trays or swing out sections for storing small items to keep them in order.
  • Using clip lock bags to store certain items in to categories is a great idea so things can be found in a hurry.

Other things to consider when putting together a Vehicle First Aid Kit:

If going on a long trip remember to pack in your bags any prescription medication you or other passengers are taking. Whether it be for asthma, allergies or some other aliment because a pharmacy/drug store may be quite a distance away.
When an accident or injury occurs you may not have much time to read a manual while trying to give first aid to an injured person. We recommend you do a First Aid Training Course to learn what first aid challenges you may encounter and how to treat them.

First-Aid Refresher Training


First-Aid Refresher Training



When an injury or illness occurs on the job. Use the information in this session to train employees on how to handle medical emergencies when they are the first or only person on the scene.

Instruct employees to take the following steps when injuries happen. Appropriate initial care can go a long way toward recovery. Here's what to do for:

Bleeding:

  • Call emergency contact no for medical assistance for heavy bleeding.
  • Wear gloves from the first-aid kit.
  • Cover the wound with a sterile bandage from the first-aid kit.
  • Apply direct pressure.

Suspected heart attack:

  • Call emergency contact no for medical assistance.
  • Keep the person calm.
  • Loosen tight clothing.
  • Check for heart medication.
  • Keep the victim still.
  • Don’t give stimulants.

Eye injuries:

  • Chemical splashes: Flush with water for 15 minutes. Cover affected eye(s) with clean cloth. Get medical attention.
  • Particles in the eye: Flush with water until object comes out. If it won’t come out, cover the eye, and get medical attention. Don’t rub the eye.
  • Blow to the eye: Apply cold compresses for 15 minutes. Seek medical attention.
  • Cuts near the eye: Bandage loosely, and get medical attention.
  • Penetrating objects: Don’t remove, move, or apply pressure. Immobilize the object, bandage the other eye, and seek immediate medical attention.

Burns:

  • First- and second-degree burns: Treat with cold running water for pain relief. Cover burned area with moist, sterile dressing. Don’t break blisters on second-degree burns.
  • Third-degree burns: Call emergency contact no for medical assistance, and keep victim comfortable until help arrives.

Chemical exposure:

  • Eyes: Flush with water for 15 minutes, cover with clean cloth, and get medical attention.
  • Skin: Flush with water for 15 minutes, and get medical attention.
  • Inhalation: Move victim to fresh air. Administer CPR, if necessary.
  • Ingestion: Call emergency contact no for medical assistance, check MSDS for first-aid information, and/or call local poison center.
Remind this session provides a basic overview of first-aid techniques and priorities. It is not the same as a first-aid or certification course. A certification course is much more detailed and offers the opportunity to practice first-aid and CPR skills as well as providing hours of classroom training.
Encourage your employees to take a course and get certified. Taking a certification course will give them the full knowledge and confidence they need to use first-aid skills on the job, at home, and elsewhere in the community

First Aid Awareness

First Aid Awareness


When an accident happens, a first aid program that meets the requirements of the law and is tailored to the type and size of the workplace can literally make the difference between life and death, or between recovery and permanent disablement.

Supervisors should have information readily available that list emergency contacts in case of a serious injury.  The emergency notice should state the phone numbers of the closest ambulance service, fire/rescue unit, police station, and hospital.  The amount of time it takes to look up one of these important numbers can make a big difference to a seriously injured person.  The location of first aid equipment and rescue equipment should also be posted prominently.

First aid equipment and supplies should be stored where they can be reached quickly and easily in case of an accident.  These supplies should be inspected frequently, making sure they are kept in sanitary and usable condition and re-stocked after use.  Larger workplaces may need more than one, fully equipped first aid kit.

In isolated work sites, emergency supplies and an action plan are especially important.  If first aid is not given properly, it can sometimes hurt rather than help an injured or ill person, or even be harmful to the person giving the first aid.  All workers should know where the emergency first aid equipment is located, and what medical professional or medical facility should be contacted if a medical emergency should occur.

These are simple objectives to administer when providing First Aid to an injured person until professional help arrives.
  • Make sure you and the victim are not in any danger.
  • Maintain individual breathing
  • Maintain blood circulation
  • Prevent continued loss of blood
  • Prevent or treat for shock
  • Contact the nearest Medical Services as soon as possible. 
One of the handy tips for caring for a victim: If the face is red, raise the head.  If the face is pale, raise the tail.

Basic First Aid

BASIC FIRST AID


Prevention is better than cure but sometimes certain accidents may occur that cannot be prevented. In such cases, knowledge of some basic first aid tips can come in very handy for everyone and help in reducing their effects. The first thing to do is not to panic. Depending on the mishap or the accident, here are some common sense first aid tips that you can follow until help arrives to prevent and reduce serious consequences.


A.  Respiration:-

Check to see if the victim is breathing properly and his or her airways are clear. Artificial respiration like Mouth to Mouth or Mouth to Nose can help.

B.  Fainting:-

Lay down the patient and loosen his clothing around the chest, neck and waist. It is advisable to turn their head to one side. Once he/she regains consciousness, give them some fluids. Consult a doctor immediately.

C.  Fracture:-

If you suspect a fracture, immobilize the affected limb and keep it padded with support on either side of the joint.  Consult a doctor immediately.

D. Burns & Scalds:-

If the victim is suffering from burns or Scalds, cool the affected area with cold water until the pain reduces. Cover the blisters with a clean cloth. Give the patient plenty of  fluids. Consult a doctor.

E. Bleeding:-

If the victim has got hurt and is bleeding, the first thing you should do is to control the bleeding and take care of the wound. The wound should be covered with a bandage or a clean cloth. The affected part of the body like the leg or arm should be given rest and kept elevated.

F. Bleeding Nose:-

In the case of a bleeding nose, make the patient sit up with his head slightly forward. The nose should not be blown and the patient should try to avoid breathing from the nose. A cold compress should be applied over the nose . Consult a doctor.

G. Animal Bite:-

Wash the affected area with soap and water. Consult a doctor immediately to find out what to do next. If a dog has bitten the patient, it is usually advisable to identify the dog and watch him for a few days.

H. Bee Bite:-

Remove the stings forceps. Consult a doctor immediately.



Always keep the following numbers handy, such as Doctor’s, Ambulance service, taxi Service, Most reliable person to contact in case of an emergency.

 Note: If you are in doubt about what to do, it is better to do nothing. Due to your ignorance, you may do more harm than good.

First Aid

First Aid

Globally, millions of people die each year as a result of accidents or serious injury. Unfortunately, many of those deaths could have been prevented had first aid been administered at the scene immediately, before the emergency services arrived. First aid, or emergency first aid is the care that is given to an injured or sick person prior to treatment by medically trained personnel.


Some self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may only require first aid intervention, and no further treatment. First aid generally consists of some simple, often life-saving techniques that most people can be trained to perform with minimal equipment. First aid usually refers to administration of care to a human, although it can also be done on animals. The aim of first aid is to prevent a deterioration of the patient's situation, to aid recovery, and to preserve life. Technically, it is not classed as medical treatment and should not be compared to what a trained medical professional might do. First aid is a combination of some simple procedures, plus the application of common sense.

Aims of first aid:

  • To preserve life - this is the main aim of first aid; to save lives. This includes the life of the first aider, the casualty (the victim, the injured/sick person), and bystanders.
  • To prevent further harm - the patient must be kept stable and his/her condition must not worsen before medical services arrive. This may include moving the patient out of harm's way, applying first aid techniques, keeping him/her warm and dry, applying pressure to wounds to stop bleeding, etc.
  • Promote recovery - this may include applying a plaster (bandage) to a small wound; anything that may help in the recovery process.

What are the vital first aid skills?

ABC (and sometimes D) The most common term referred to in first aid is ABC, which stands for Airway, Breathing, and Circulation. In fact, the term also is commonly used among emergency health professionals. The D stands for Deadly bleeding or Defibrillation.
  • Airway - the first aider needs to make sure the casualty's airway is clear. Chocking, which results from the obstruction of airways, can be fatal.
  • Breathing - when the first aider has determined that the airways are not obstructed, he/she must determine the casualty's adequacy of breathing, and if necessary provide rescue breathing.
  • Circulation - if the casualty is not breathing the first aider should go straight for chest compression and rescue breathing. The chest compression will provide circulation. The reason is time - checking circulation to a non-breathing casualty consumes time that could be used with chest compression and rescue breathing. With less serious casualties (those that are breathing), the first aider needs to check the casualty's pules.
  • Deadly bleeding or Defibrillation - some organizations have this fourth step, while others include this as part of circulation.
How to evaluate and maintain the ABC of a patient depends on how well trained the first aider is. As soon as ABC has been secured the first aider can then focus on any additional treatments.

Some organizations use the 3Bs system, which stands for Breathing, Bleeding, and Bones, while others use 4Bs, which stands for Breathing, Bleeding, Brain, and Bones.

ABCs and 3Bs are taught to be carried out in order of sequence. However, there are times when the first aider may be performing two steps at the same time, as might be the case when providing rescue breathing and chest compression to a casualty who is not breathing and has no pulse

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)



 

 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)


Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency medical procedure for a victim of cardiac arrest. CPR can maintain circulation and breathing until emergency medical help arrives. CPR involves two elements: Chest Compressions combined with mouth to mouth rescue breathing. Before you beign, assess the situation before starting CPR. 


  1. Is the person conscious or unconscious?
  2. If the person appears unconscious, tap or shake his/her shoulder and ask loudly "Are you Ok" ?
  3. If the person doesn't respond call the emergency help line number and begin doing CPR.

Remember the ABCs:

Think ABC - Air way, Breathing, Circulation.
 

  1. Air way -  Open the airway with the tilt -chin method.
  2. Breathe - give two breaths.
  3. Check circulation.

If there is in no pulse or breathing, perform chest compressions - 15 compressions and breaths.


  1. Keep the head slightly backward and 12 breaths.
  2. Seal the casualty's nose to prevent escape of air by pinching with thumb and index finger.
  3. Take a deep breathe, open your month widely, place it with the victim's mouth and make a tight seal.
  4. Quickly below the full breath into the mouth of the victim.
  5. Remove your mouth from the victim and allow him to exhale passively.
  6. Repeat the procedure till the medical aid arrives.

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